Do sheep have horns?

Do sheep have horns? While some sheep do have horns, not all do. Both Bighorn and Thinhorn sheep, as well as some Ewe sheep, have horns! Horn size varies according to the sheep’s gender, species, age, and environment. It’s mind-boggling to consider. Generally, when mammals such as sheep have horns, they are either male or female. Sheep are an outlier to this rule. Surprisingly, many factors contribute to why some sheep have horns and others do not.

To determine whether or not sheep have horns, scientists employ some peculiar terminology. Therefore, let us take a moment to be scientific. When sheep have horns, they are referred to as unpolled sheep (meaning they have horns). Polled animals are sheep that lack horns. There is some gray area between having horns and not having horns. Certain sheep do not develop visible horns but do have scurs or partially developed horns.

Do Female Sheep Have Horns?

To some extent, but not all of them. Certain sheep breeds have hornless rams and ewes, while others have horned males and females. In most sheep breeds, rams have horns, and ewes do not, but both sexes have horns in a few other breeds. Horns are the most sought-after trophies for wild sheep. The horn ranges in size from relatively minor to quite large. Scientists have defined scientific terms to describe whether or not sheep have horns. The following terms refer to the horned and hornless sheep.

  • Polled: Polled or naturally, hornless rams and ewes are those that are devoid of horns.
  • Non-Polled: When both sexes are horned, it is said that they are non-polled.
  • Scur: Except for the polled and non-polled strains, sheep have undergrown visible horns to meet halfway. Scurs are these partially developed horns.

Sheep Horns

The horns of a sheep are hollow. They are composed of a keratin sheath that covers a bony core. The core is attached to the skull of the sheep. The horns of a sheep will continue to grow throughout its lifetime. The first two or three years of an animal’s life are the most rapid in growth.

Blood flows through the horns of a sheep. While the horns of a goat grow straight, the horns of a sheep typically spiral and curl. Even when both male and female sheep have horns, male sheep’s horns will always be more significant and impressive.

If two animals are polled (have no horns) and each has one dominant and one recessive horn gene, the offspring has a 25% chance of having horns. Genetic knowledge is critical for breeders to be able to breed sheep with the desired characteristics.

What factors determine the appearance of horns in sheep?

Numerous factors contribute to why some sheep have horns and others do not. Breed, genetic influences, age, sex, and environmental factors all play a significant role in determining the presence and size of the horn.

  • Breed
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Environmental conditions 


Not all breeds are endowed with the privilege of wearing prized trophies. Numerous breeders developed horns in various sheep breeds on their own.

Numerous sheep breeds developed horns as a result of genetic variations and breed mixtures. Apart from selective breeding, the dominant male sex hormone also plays a role in horn development.


Horns reveal a sheep’s age because they develop throughout the sheep’s life. Horn growth is optimal during the first two or three years of a sheep’s life. In the world of sheep, a larger horn is a sign of survival. A sheep with more enormous horns are believed to have a better chance of survival than


Humans have varying heights, skin colors, and features; sheep exhibit variable traits due to genetic influence. When one considers factors such as the sheep’s gender, heredity, and gene pool, one can see how the ability to have horns is passed down through different species of sheep. If you see a ram or ewe with larger horns and smaller horns, they likely inherited the horn size from their parents or were raised differently.

Environmental Conditions

Environmental factors should not be ignored. Wild sheep are frequently seen displaying their horns, which may assist them in surviving in the wild. Drought or famine affects sheep growth. A Bighorn sheep study revealed that a drought in the desert resulted in a significant reduction in the breed’s horn size. When sheep are malnourished and dehydrated, proper horn growth is improbable.

Horn Genetics

Three genes control the development of horns. The genes transmitted from parents to offspring determine whether or not the sheep will have horns. A dominant gene will always have a say in how a trait is represented.

  • The polled or hornless condition is caused by a single gene (P). Both sexes are hornless if this gene is dominant.
  • One gene (p) is sex-linked and is responsible for non-polled conditions in which rams have horns and ewes do not.
  • The third gene (p’) is dominant in both rams and ewes when it comes to horn development.

If both parents are heterozygous (Pp) for horns, the probability of having horned offspring increases to 25%.

Why are horns useful for the sheep?

Sheep use their horns for survival purposes. Wild sheep, in particular, require horns to defend themselves against predators and to fight off members of their own families. Because the wild is unforgiving, the sheep have little weaponry on their heads to defend themselves.

Can sheep be dehorned?

Many sheep owners believe that removing sheep horns is safer. If the sheep has behavioral issues and occasionally engages in combat, the owner’s only option is dehorning. It is not always because of bad behavior that horns are removed; eliminating horns could be for any health reason or to relieve the sheep’s head of excess weight.

Horned Sheep Breeds

Numerous sheep breeds’ rams and ewes have horns. This article discusses a few of the horned sheep breeds.

Jacob Sheep

The two characteristics that set the Jacob breed apart from the others are its color patterns and horns. Jacob is renowned for its distinctive four horns, though they can also have two or six horns.

Both rams and ewes are unpolled. Rams typically have larger and more impressive horns than ewes. The two-horned Jacob ram has horns that are horizontally curled. There are two vertical center horns and two smaller side horns on a four-horned ram. Ewes’ horns are not as impressive in size and shape as those of rams. The delicate horns reflect the ewes’ vulnerability. Ewes’ horns are shorter and have a smaller diameter.

Bighorn Sheep

When it comes to horned sheep, Bighorn is not a name to overlook. The sheep are so named due to their massive horns. Rams with big, curved horns and large horn cores are called bighorn rams. Ewes support horns that are shorter and have less curvature. Bighorn Sheep horns can weigh up to 30 pounds. The Bighorn retains their horns for the duration of their lives. These creature’s horns curl around their face and continue to grow throughout their lives.

Wiltshire Horn

Wiltshire Horn sheep are considered highly profitable by farmers due to their consistent production of twins and triplets. The Wiltshire Horn is not a very common breed in the United Kingdom due to its unusual features. This breed’s rams and ewes both have impressive spiral horns. Rams are prized for their unique horns, which grow one full spiral per year until maturity.

Racka Sheep

Racka’s unusual horns catapulted them to fame. They are distinguished by their singular spiral-shaped horn, which distinguishes them from many other domestic sheep. These spiral-shaped horns, which protrude straight upward from the crown of the head, are well developed in both sexes.

Norfolk Horn

The breed is well-known for its survivability, black-faced appearance, and distinctive horns. The breed’s beauty captivates you. The breed has an unpolled generation in which both the ram and ewe have horns. Rams have larger horns than ewes. The horns of this heavily horned breed are long and open spiral in shape.

Horn-related Fascinating Facts About Sheep

Some facts about sheep horns may be obscure, but they contribute to the sheep’s uniqueness as a species.

  • Sheep horns are hollow growths covered in a hard layer of keratinous! Keratin is a critical protein in sheep and is involved in forming various external body parts, including horns. The sheep have blood flowing through their horns in the hollow areas.
  • In some breeds, horns are used to determine a ram’s social status and mating ability 7. The larger the horns, the more dominant the ram will be. If a ram has smaller horns, he is unlikely to challenge other rams for the pack’s leadership position. However, if a ram’s horns are comparable to those of the lead ram, there is a good chance that they will eventually challenge the lead ram.
  • Sheep are capable of having multiple horns. In other words, more than two horns. This condition is known as Polyceraty (multiple horns), and it is caused by a specific gene passed down from their family 8.
  • On 8 May 2019, a seven-year-old Alabama Longhorn sheep (Poncho Via) set the Guinness World Record for the longest pair of horns. From tip to tip, the horns measure 323.74 cm (10ft 7.4in) in length.
  • Horn genes can influence sheep reproductive success. Rams with the small horn gene have a lower reproductive success rate than their counterparts with the longhorn gene. Essentially, they are not as aggressive with their horns.

The fascinating aspect of this is that some sheep breeds have two horns rather than one. There are four horns! That sheep is doing exceptionally well for itself. Additionally, a hearty congratulations to Poncho Via of Alabama, who currently holds the Guinness World Record for the longest pair of horns. That is no mean feat.


Horns on both sexes are not uncommon in the sheep world. Certain unpolled sheep breeds are thought to have the largest horns of all ruminants. Numerous sheep breeds have magnificently beautiful horns. Generally, rams have larger horns, whereas ewes have smaller, more delicate horns. Horns are revered in the sheep’s territory; they represent rank and mating power. See also why do sheep have large olfactory bulb

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